Posted By Administration,
27 January 2020
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by Kim Fisher
The meeting of the sub-committee on Navigation, Communications, Search and Rescue was chaired by Ringo Lakeman of the Netherlands. This meeting competed his 5 year term as chairman but under exceptional arrangements it was agreed to extend his term for a further year in order to provide continuity for the proposed revision of SOLAS/IV. The meeting was also the second of the exceptional 8 day meetings agreed due to the extensive workload of this sub-committee, but it was further agreed to allow an 8 day meeting again next year.
The next meeting will need to complete the revision of Chapter IV (Radiocommunications) of the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and associated documents if the intended entering into force of 2024 is to be achieved. This work had been ongoing since 2009. Considerable progress was achieved and it seems hopeful that completed texts will be ready for next year. The new SOLAS facilitates the use of the Iridium satellite system as an alternative to Inmarsat but issues of interoperability between the systems and monitoring of and charging for Maritime Safety Information (MSI) broadcasts require more work.
Revised guidelines for the shore-based maintenance and annual testing of satellite emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs) were agreed and also a revised version of the SafetyNET manual. It was announced that Peter Doherty who has chaired the international SafetyNET coordinating panel for the past 17 years was standing down.
The developing ICAO work for a Global aeronautical distress and safety system (GADDS) led to a new circular on interim guidance for search and rescue services regarding implementation of autonomous distress tracking of aircraft in flight. pending revision of the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual.
The Indian regional navigation satellite system (IRNSS) was agreed to be recognised as part of the worldwide radionavigation system and performance standards were agreed for the Japanese regional satellite system (QZSS). A proposal for generic performance standards for satellite navigation systems was carried forward to the next meeting.
Revised guidelines for vessel traffic services (VTS) were agreed to bring them up to date. Work on guidelines for maritime services descriptions remains ongoing.
Safety measures for non-SOLAS ships operating in Polar waters was discussed and will be progressed further in a correspondence group to be coordinated by New Zealand. Revisions of guidelines on places of refuge for ships will be progressed further in a correspondence group to be coordinated by the UK.
A detail anomaly in the revised IMO Circular on navigation-related symbols, terms and abbreviations (SN.1/Circ.243) agreed at the last meeting led to a corrigendum removing the symbol for MSI.
Proposals to modify ECDIS requirements to accept new S-100 charts will be discussed again at the next meeting.
Amendments were agreed to the traffic separation schemes in Norway, Slupska Bank Poland and Off Ushant France together with amendments to the two way route in the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait Australia.
The next meeting of NCSR is planned for 10 to 19 February 2021. A meeting of the Maritime Safety Committee is planned for 13 to 22 May 2020. A meeting of the Joint IMO/ITU Experts Group is planned for 6 to 10 July 2020. A meeting of the ICAO/IMO Joint Working Group is planned for 12 to 16 October 2020 in London.
International Maritime Organization
Posted By Administration,
11 December 2019
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URBAN AIR MOBILITY (UAM)
Graham Purchase reports on news from the Commercial UAV Show held in London in November, so standby for some more drone acronyms!
Among several short talks given at the UAV Show at the ExCel Centre, one that stood out for me was actually about ground infrastructure. It was given by Duncan Walker, MD of Essex-based Skyports Ltd. Skyports have produced the first ‘Vertiport’ comprising a small building for check-in and boarding/leaving an Autonomous Air Vehicle (AAV) and for swapping the batteries. This is combined with a short ‘taxiway’ and a platform for take-off/landing, like a helipad. The modular structure was erected by a team of 150 people in only 1 week in Singapore, for the 26th Intelligence Transport World Conference, held at Marina Bay in October.
Left: Voloport showing the taxiway and take-off landing pad, right: Inside the Vertiport
Skyports had teamed up with Florian Reuter, CEO of Volocopter GmbH, to demonstrate the concept of UAM at the conference. The vertiport, named ‘Voloport’ was opened by the EC Transport Commissioner, Violeta Bulc. About 8000 people, including representatives from EASA, the CAA and NATS, visited the Voloport during the conference. There were also 2 solo demonstration flights of the ‘Volocopter’ AAV by a test pilot, seen here near the giant Sands Hotel. The vertiport structure was dismantled after the show, ready for re-use at similar events in other ‘mega-cities’.
Left: Vertiport at night, right: Over Marina Bay
Skyports is targeting other large cities, and is working to secure sites in London, Los Angeles, Melbourne and elsewhere; using, for example, the rooftops of offices, multi-storey car parks or railway stations. They are planning both passenger ‘air-taxi’ and also cargo-delivery services. To establish these services will require buy-in from politicians and detailed work with the regulators, as well as the development of Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) services. UTM is a new type of ATM needed for these large drones, which will have to be integrated with existing ATC systems. A number of companies are working on UTM, including Altitude Angel, whose ‘GuardianUTM’ system was demonstrated, in conjunction with NATS and other partners, during ‘Operation Zenith’ at Manchester Airport in November 1018 (For more details, see the RIN website News pages). For parcel delivery, Skyports envisages much smaller infrastructure, probably sited around the periphery of cities, or at airports, and there would be a variety of final delivery methods. AAVs will be much quieter than helicopters, but still 3-4 times faster than road travel, with prices similar to using a taxi. However, pubic acceptance of the technology will be key to its success.
Left: There are 18 electrically powered motors, right: Volocopter top view
The Volocopter demonstrator is a 2-seat aircraft with 18 rotors, and 3 independent batteries, and has a ballistic-parachute in case of emergency. The company is based in Bruchsal, Germany, and has plans involving its partner, Mercedes Benz, for mass production. Also, Volocopter has received a $55M investment from a Chinese company, and is working with a number of firms on developing delivery-drones
There are several other significant players in the UAM marketplace; here are some examples:
Airbus has developed 2 demonstrators, the ‘Vanhana’ single seat cargo delivery AAV with tandem tilting wings; it is capable of 100 kts with a payload of 50 kg. Their ‘CitiAirbus’ is a 4-seat flying-taxi AAV capable of 70kts with a duration of about 15 min.
Left: AirBus Vanhana delivery drone, right: CityAirbus
Not to be outdone, the Beijing Yi-Hang Creation Science & Technology Company has produced the Ehang air-taxi and the Falcon delivery & public security management (zoom & infra-red camera equipped) AAVs, in conjunction with ‘smart-city’, ‘smart-logistics’ and ‘aerial media’ solutions. The Falcon is already in trial service with DHL-Sinotrans in China! One can post an item in a large roadside box; the top of the box then slides open to allow a drone to take off and carry the package to a similar box near the delivery address, then a courier collects the package and completes the delivery. A control centre monitors the whole delivery process and drone operations, possibly involving 5G communications. A fully automated warehouse and sorting centre is also under development. Aerial Media includes the performance of most spectacular light shows involving hundreds of their ‘Egret’ drones flying in formation. (Videos are available on the Ehang website).
Left: Ehang air-taxi, right: Ehang Falcon DHL
Back in the UK, Bristol-based Vertical Aerospace is developing a passenger-carrying AAV, called Seraph. The Seraph prototype had its maiden flight at Cotswold Airport (Kemble) in October, and it is due to be operational by 2022.
Vertical Aerospace SERAPH
These much-hyped personal air-taxis may grab the headlines but the industry will have to overcome huge regulatory obstacles which will delay their introduction, eg in UK. However, they will be much easier to introduce in more sparsely populated and deregulated places, perhaps like Dubai or parts of the US and Australia. Meanwhile, global parcel delivery companies are lobbying hard for permission to start operations in out-of-town locations and are already calling for access to UK airspace. This was discussed at a recent GATCO-BALPA conference, where DfT and CAA officials made it clear that we can expect the lowest levels of, initially controlled, airspace to be set aside for the use of drones, within a few years. To enable the drones/AAVs to detect and avoid other traffic, both the drones and existing conventional aircraft are likely to be required to continuously transmit their GNSS-derived position using Automated Dependent Surveillance (ADS-B) technology. The AAVs will have to ‘file’ their flight plans and operate under UTM control.
On the domestic front, please note that all drones over 250 grams now have to be registered annually with the CAA, and the owners have to undertake an online test of their knowledge of drone operating laws. Also, as the final picture demonstrates, it seems that the advent of drone add-ons, or perhaps replacements for, delivery vans are closer than most people think!
UPS Van & Drone
autonomous air vehicle
unmanned aerial vehicle
Posted By Administration,
03 October 2019
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As technological advances make GPS/GNSS* devices more affordable, our lives are becoming increasingly dependent on precise positioning and timing. Industries such as survey, construction and logistics rely on precise positioning for automation, efficiency and safety. GNSS time provides the pulsating heartbeat for the backbone of our industry by synchronizing telecom networks, banks and the power grid. A single day of GNSS outage is estimated to cost 1 billion dollars in US alone (1). GNSS is a reliable system, and to keep it as such professional GNSS receivers need to be wary of all possible vulnerabilities which could be exploited. Using GNSS receivers which are robust against jamming and spoofing is key for secure PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Time).
*GNSS refers to the constellations of satellites broadcasting signals from space that transmit positioning and timing information to GNSS receivers on Earth. The receivers then use this information to determine their location. These systems include the American GPS, European Galileo, Russian GLONASS, Chinese BeiDou, Japanese QZSS (Michibiki) and the Indian NAVIC system. "
What is GPS/GNSS spoofing?
Radio interference can overpower weak GNSS signals, causing satellite signal loss and potentially loss of positioning. Spoofing, is an intelligent form of interference which makes the receiver believe it is at a false location. During a spoofing attack a radio transmitter located nearby sends fake GPS signals into the target receiver. For example, a cheap SDR (Software Defined Radio) can make a smartphone believe it’s on Mount Everest!
Figure 1: cheap SDR (Software Defined Radio) can overpower GNSS signals and spoofs a single-frequency smartphone GPS into believing it is on Mount Everest.
Why GPS spoofing?
Imagine a combat situation. Clearly, the side which uses GPS/GNSS technology would have an advantage over the side which does not. But what if one side could manipulate GPS receivers of their adversary? This could mean taking over control of autonomous vehicles and robotic devices which rely on GPS positioning. For example, in October 2018, Russia accused the US of spoofing a drone and redirecting it to attack a Russian air base in Syria(2).
Figure 2: GNSS spoofing could be used to manipulate movement of aerial drones.
In the last 3 years over 600 incidents of spoofing have been recorded in the seas near the Russian border. These ships appeared to be “transported” to nearby airports (3). This type of spoofing might have been introduced as a defense mechanism to ground spy drones. Most semi-professional drones on the market have a built-in geo-fencing mechanism which lands them automatically if they come close to airports or other restricted areas (4).
Some of the most enthusiastic spoofers are Pokémon GO fans who use cheap SDRs (Software Defined Radios) to spoof their GPS position and catch elusive pokémon without having to leave their room.
Types of Spoofing
Spoofers overpower relatively weak GNSS signals with radio signals carrying false positioning information. There are two ways of spoofing:
Rebroadcasting GNSS signals recorded at another place or time (so-called meaconing)
Generating and transmitting modified satellite signals
Spoof-proof: how to protect your receiver against spoofing?
In order to combat spoofing, GNSS receivers need to detect spoofed signals out of a mix of authentic and spoofed signals. Once a satellite signal is flagged as spoofed, it can be excluded from positioning calculation.
There are various levels of spoofing protection that a receiver can offer. Let’s compare it to a house intrusion detection system. You can have a simple entry alarm system or a more complex movement detection system. For added security you might install video image recognition, breaking-glass sound detection or a combination of the above.
Like a house with an open door, an unprotected GNSS receiver is vulnerable to even the simplest forms of spoofing. Secured receivers, on the other hand, can detect spoofing by looking for signal anomalies, or by using signals designed to prevent spoofing such as Galileo OS-NMA and E6 or the GPS military code.
Advanced interference mitigation technologies, such as the Septentrio AIM+, use signal-processing algorithms to flag spoofing by detecting various anomalies in the signal. For example, a spoofed signal is usually more powerful than an authentic GNSS signal.
AIM+ won’t even be fooled by an advanced GNSS signal generator: Spirent GSS9000. With realistic power levels and with actual navigation data within the signal, AIM+ can identify it as a “non-authentic” signal.
Other advanced anti-spoofing techniques such as using a dual-polarized antenna are being researched today, read more about this method here.
Satellite navigation data authentication
Various countries invest in spoofing resilience by building security directly into their GNSS satellites. With OS-NMA (Open Service Navigation Message Authentication), Galileo is the first satellite system to introduce an anti-spoofing service directly on a civil GNSS signal.
OS-NMA is a free service on the Galileo E1 frequency. It enables authentication of the navigation data on Galileo and even GPS satellites. Such navigation data carries information about satellite location and if altered will result in wrong receiver positioning computation. While currently in development, OS-NMA is planned to become publicly available in the near future. Also GPS is experimenting with satellite based anti-spoofing for civil users with their recent Chimera authentication system.
Figure 3: European Galileo satellites provide an open authentication service on the E1 signal and a commercial authentication service on the E6 signal. Picture, courtesy of the European Space Agency.
Recently, within the scope of the FANTASTIC project led by GSA, OS-NMA anti-spoofing protection was implemented on a Septentrio receiver.
The strongest shield: signal-level GNSS authentication
The Galileo system will be offering Commercial Authentication Service (CAS) on the E6 signal with the highest level of security for safety-critical applications such as autonomous vehicles. The signal level encryption will be based on similar techniques as the military GPS signals. Only the receivers who have the secret key are able to track such encrypted signals. The secret key is also needed to generate the signal making it impossible to fake. CAS authentication techniques are currently being prototyped at Septentrio in collaboration with the European Space Agency.
Spoof-resilient GNSS means reliable precise positioning and timing, and a peace of mind for everyone touched by this indispensable technology.
5. Technical paper by Septentrio - Authentication by polarization: a powerful anti-spoofing method
This blog is courtesy of Septentrio. See more at www.septentrio.com
Posted By Clare Stead,
05 April 2019
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Fly/Sail Weekend – 23/24 June 2018
Piece by Sally Pawson, originally published in September/October 2018 edition of Navigation News.
The weather had held! We awoke to brilliant sunshine and low winds – just what the aviators wanted but not necessarily the yachts! Four boats arrived in Hornets, Gosport consisting of two yachts - Mischief 2 and Darwin Star, a catamaran - Spirit of Scott Bader which is part of Sailability International and a motorboat - Charlie 2. John Cairns and Paul Bryans kindly ferried the mariners to Dedalius airfield at Lee on the Solent where four planes had arrived (a Piper Warrior, a Wassmer Europa, a Jodel and another plane flown by Graham Purchase). We all met up over lunch and then once the aviators decided who was taking whom, they took to the skies with their mariner passengers. The mariners had a fantastic time flying over the Solent across to Newport on the Isle of Wight where we enjoyed a bird’s eye view of the 50th Isle of Wight Festival that was taking place all weekend. Then we headed South towards St Catherine’s Point and out to sea bearing across Freshwater Bay, banking over the Needles to take photos before heading East across Hurst Castle, Beaulieu, Calshot and Southampton Water, back to Lee on the Solent.
Once everyone had enjoyed their flying adventure, John and Paul ferried us all back to Hornets for drinks and nibbles on Charlie 2 where everyone was pleased to see Mike Highwood joining us. With 17 aviators and mariners aboard Charlie 2 it was rather cosy, all getting to know each other extremely well! When there were no more nibbles left and the wine was running dry, we headed for the Hornets restaurant for supper and more drinks - after all it had been a very hot day. Having satiated our hunger and slated our thirst, berths were found on the boats for all the aviators and once all the bags had reached the right owners we all settled down for a well-earned sleep.
Sunday morning dawned bright and sunny again with low winds. We were (mostly) up early bright eyed and bushy tailed despite the copious amounts of alcohol the previous evening. Obviously this lot have had plenty of practice! Mischief 2 and the Spirit of Scott Bader departed at 08:30 sailing to the Royal Victoria Yacht Club in Wootton Creek on the island for brunch. Unfortunately, Darwin Star unable to join us, had to return to his local mooring. There wasn’t a great deal of wind but the aviators enjoyed their sail. Charlie 2 left at 09:20 arriving to a welcoming committee just 20 minutes later. We were made very welcome at the Royal Victoria Yacht Club and ate a hearty brunch outside in the sunshine, washed down with copious amounts of tea and coffee.
We were limited on time in Wootton Creek as it dries out so we all left around 11:30 bidding fond goodbyes to those heading home. The rest returned to Hornets to disgorge the aviators so that John could take them back to the Dedalius for their flights home.
It had been an absolutely fabulous weekend and certainly the best Fly/Sail weekend I had been on. There was never a dull moment and it was like meeting old friends for the first time. I met some really lovely people who I hope will become firm friends in the future. Lucy from the Spirit of Scott Bader subsequently emailed me saying it was possibly the best weekend of her life. Praise indeed to everyone who took part.
Roll on the next Solent Fly/Sail weekend!
Would you like to join us for the next Fly/Sail? Click here for more details about Fly/Sail 2019.
Click on the image below to download the poster for the event.
small craft group
Posted By Administration,
04 March 2019
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Editor of Navigation News,
‘Lady Jane Franklin – The Indomitable Woman of Naval Heroism’ Navigation News, August 2018
It was somewhat surprising and disappointing to find in an article about Lady Jane Franklin and the missing Franklin expedition, that John Rae, Arctic explorer and Hudson Bay Company doctor was not even mentioned. Yet he played such a crucial role in the story. It was he who in 1854 finally discovered the fate of Franklin and his men. Without John Rae, despite all the pronouncements of Lady Jane Franklin, the many naval searches and intense public speculation, the fate of the Franklin expedition and the Victorian mystery of the century would have continued unsolved.
Sir John Franklin with two ships and 129 men in the best ever equipped expedition had departed from Orkney in 1845 with great expectations and national pride to find the legendary North West Passage - and had then vanished. By the end of 1847 with no news of the ships having entered the Bering Sea, the Admiralty was becoming concerned. Awards were offered and in what became the largest search and rescue effort in history up to that time, thirty six expeditions with over fifty ships searched the High Arctic for seven years but all to no avail.
Dr. John Rae, medical Officer with the Hudson Bay Company and already a growing legend in Arctic exploration, was called on by the Admiralty and Lady Franklin to lead land-based search expeditions. A Scot from Orkney, Rae had learned from the Inuit and Cree how to adapt and survive in the Arctic. An expert shot, he could cover prodigious distances on snow-shoe and from his Orkney upbringing was skilled in small boat sailing. He travelled fast and light, used igloos and hunted as he went.
Between 1847 and ’54, John Rae led four overland search expeditions each consisting of a small party of hardened and picked Hudson Bay men. As a measure of the esteem in which he was held, he was encouraged by such messages as from Lady Franklin “---it has been the custom of many people to throw upon you everything that others have failed to accomplish” : from Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort –“I cannot let the mail go without first telling you how intently all eyes are fixed upon you.” and from Sir George Simpson of the Hudson Bay Company “I urge you to go further north, the manner and direction of any search being left to your discretion and judgment.”
At last in April 1854, after 7 years of searching in which he had travelled well over 10,000 miles by foot and snowshoe, dogsled or small boat and charted around 1,750 miles of new coastline, Rae had found the answer as to the fate of Franklin. At Cape Pelly on the east coast of Boothia, -- he had came across a lone Inuit hunter who was wearing a gold naval hat band. He told Rae that “four winters before, other Inuit had found 40 to 50 white men starved to death 10 to 12 days walk away. The hat he was wearing was proof.” Three weeks later he met other Inuit with further information and relics including a small silver plate stamped ‘Sir John Franklin’ to confirm their information. White men had been seen travelling south over the ice dragging a boat and sledges passing along the west shore of the island which Rae reckoned to be Prince William Island. The following Spring when the Inuit visited a river further south to fish – reckoned to be Fish River – they found 30 corpses some in a tent, some in a boat. They also found evidence of cannibalism!
John Rae desperately wanted to search further and confirm this but could not. He had one man with severe frostbite whom he had to get back south for medical attention. In addition, he would have to wait many months before conditions were suitable again for overland travel. Finally he felt he had to report back to London to stop further search ships heading north in a dangerous and fruitless search. Rae had also made another significant discovery, though this at the time seemed of secondary importance and was somewhat overlooked. On his final expedition in April 1854 while exploring the west coast of Boothia, on an area stretching west to King William Island which had been charted as land, Rae found what he recognized to be fresh sea ice and very different from the rougher and impenetrable old pack ice impossible to sail through at any time. This he knew would be open water in the summer. With open water to north and south, he realized that at last the final link in the North West Passage had been located between Boothia and King William Island.
Rae returned to London with a detailed and confidential report to the Admiralty and the Hudson Bay Company reporting the cannibalism story as it had been reported to him. “From the mutilated state of the bodies and the contents of the kettles it is evident that our wretched countrymen had been driven to the last resort as a means of prolonging existence.” In a separate letter to the Times he made no mention of cannibalism. He was shocked therefore when the report to the Admiralty was leaked to the Press.
The news that some of Franklin’s crew had resorted to survival cannibalism horrified Victorian Britain and the world.
The document damned Rae in the eyes of the Establishment. Lurid images appeared in the Press and Rae’s integrity was called into question. How dare this man who dressed like and mixed with the natives suggest that men of the Royal Navy could indulge in cannibalism – and more to the point not verify it.
Particularly virulent was an outraged Lady Jane Franklin. Always formidable and driven she sought to glorify the memory of her husband and crew, but became jealous and embittered. Having earlier championed John Rae and begged for his support, she turned on him. How dare John Rae, a fur trader who had gone native, accuse Sir John Franklin and the Royal Navy of cannibalism! Why had Rae failed to visit the area with the reporting Inuit? She also strongly opposed the Admiralty reward to Rae as first to return with information about the missing expedition In her campaign of hate she engaged the energies and skill of Charles Dickens, the most influential writer of the Age. Dickens launched an attack against the Inuit whom he regarded as “ a gross handful of uncivilized people, with a domesticity of blood and blubber” who were “ covetous, treacherous and cruel “ and accused them of murder and cannibalism. “It would be impossible that the British Navy would or could in any extremity of hunger alleviate the pain of starvation by this horrible means”
Rae was also betrayed by his fellow explorer, Leopold Mclintock who in 1856 had been hired by Lady Franklin to search around Prince William Island in the ‘Fox’. Before he set sail, John Rae had pointed out to him where, according to the Inuit, the remains of the last of Franklin’s men were located. The Arctic Fox, as McLintock became known, later claimed credit for his discoveries and never acknowledged Rae’s huge contribution to his success. Nor did he ever confirm or make mention of cannibalism and he shunned Rae in public. John Rae was ostracized by Victorian society and probably because of this he was the only Arctic explorer of the time not to be knighted, though arguably he was the greatest.
As well as severely maligning John Rae, Lady Franklin was also a purveyor of ‘Fake News’. She wrongly claimed that Franklin had discovered the fabled and long sought after North West Passage. A statue initiated and funded by Lady Franklin now stands in London’s Waterloo Place to commemorate this, bearing the inscription ‘FRANKLIN – to the great Arctic navigator and his brave companions who sacrificed their lives in completing the discovery of the North West Passage’ It is now known that ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’ had been crushed in the ice and had sunk in a channel of permanent impenetrable flow ice far from open water and nowhere near the North West Passage. The fact that it had been Dr. John Rae and not her husband who completed the discovery of the North West Passage undoubtedly had further infuriated Lady Franklin.
The nasty and vindictive campaigns led by Lady Jane Franklin and Charles Dickens sought to destroy John Rae. But Rae refused to back down. He stood by his report on the fate of the Franklin expedition. Further vindication of John Rae came in the 1980s and 90s from osteo-archaeologists examining human bones recovered from Franklin Expedition sites on King William Island which confirmed cannibalism. It was not until 1906 that the North West Passage was confirmed when Roald Amundsen, the great Polar explorer followed John Rae’s chart to sail through the Rae strait, the final link in the North West Passage. Amundsen held Rae in the highest regard. He wrote of him “John Rae deserves the very highest credit for his Arctic exploration. He discovered the Rae Strait through which in all probability is the only navigable route round the north coast of America and the only passage free from destructive ice”
Having been ignored, vilified and forgotten by Victorian society, Dr. John Rae is now honoured and remembered.
In July 2014, a motion was introduced to the UK Parliament which recognized his discoveries and acknowledged that Rae and not Franklin was the first to discover the North West Passage. In October of the same year a memorial plaque was unveiled in Westminster Abbey to his honour. The Scottish Secretary of State announced then “at last John Rae has been granted the proper recognition he deserves, up there with the foremost of explorers, and not just in Orkney or Canada where already he is revered but also here in the heart of the British Establishment”
More recently, to further celebrate his achievements the Royal Incorporation of Chartered Surveyors has honoured John Rae with a posthumous Diploma and will be sponsoring the ‘Arctic Return Expedition’ through the North West Passage in March 2019. In addition the John Rae Society have proposed that John Rae be commemorated next year with a bust in the Hall for Heroes at the 150th anniversary of the Wallace National Monument in Stirling.
It is hoped that Alexa Price will appreciate the full story surrounding Lady Jane Franklin. To present a more balanced account for her PhD thesis, Ms Price perhaps should also consider the darker aspects of Lady Jane’s persona.
Dr Ken Stewart MD Ed. FRCSEd. FRCOG MB ChB Ed
Colin Whimster MA (Cantab)
Lady Jane Franklin